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ACTIVE OR TOKEN PARTICIPATION?: HOPES AND HINDERANCES BEFORE ROMA FACE POLITICAL AMBITIONS (AKTİF YA DA SEMBOLİK KATILIM?: ROMANLARIN SİYASAL İSTEKLERİNE YÖNELİK UMUTLAR VE ENGELLER)

Deniz EROĞLU UTKU, Pınar YAZGAN
354 76

Öz


Abstract: Until recently, Roma people in Turkey and their political demands have been largely neglected. This group of people did not have any political representation through which to raise their voices or any kind of political will to change the discriminative clauses in Turkish legislations. However, since the accession negotiation process to the EU started, there has been a limited but important awakening in the consideration of Roma people in Turkey. In this regard, the most important step was the election of the first ever Roma MP in the history of the Turkish Republic. However, it is still possible to see limited political participation by the Roma in Turkey. Based on interview data in a qualitative framework, this paper will question the background of the limited political participation of Roma people. The interviews are conducted in one of the Turkish cities which is populated by a significant number of Roma: Edirne. This paper will address the hindrances to their active political participation, the sources of these hindrances and how Roma people have perceived recent developments. Drawing on the literature on political participation by minority groups, this study argues that although there has been visible political engagement by Roma groups, two important barriers affect their active participation. The joint effects of discriminative attitudes and internal dividedness weaken the Roma people’s power to influence politics. All in all, participation by Roma people remains limited and is symbolic rather than being influential and active.

Öz: Çok yakın bir zamana kadar, Türkiye’de yaşayan Romanların istekleri büyük ölçüde görmezden gelinmekteydi. Türkiye’de Roman gruplar seslerini yükseltebilecekleri bir partiye ya da mevzuatta yer alan ayrımcı ifadeleri kaldıracak siyasi iradeye sahip değillerdi. Ancak, AB müzakere sürecinin başlaması ile beraber bu alanda önemli bir uyanış yaşandı. Konuyla ilgili en büyük gelişme ise Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihinde ilk defa bir Roman milletvekilinin meclise seçilmesi oldu. Ancak, hala Türkiye’de kısıtlı bir Roman siyasi katılımı söz konusudur. Niteliksel analizi yapılan mülakat verilerine dayanan bu çalışma, Romanların kısıtlı siyasi katılımının arka planını incelemektedir. Mülakatlar Roman nüfusunun yoğun olduğu Edirne ilinde gerçekleşmiştir. Çalışma, siyasi katılım önündeki engelleri, bu engellerin kaynaklarını ve alandaki güncel gelişmelerin Romanlarca nasıl algılandığını incelemektedir. Azınlık grupların siyasi katılımları alan yazınına dayanan bu çalışmada, Romanların siyasi katılımlarında gözle görünür artış yaşanmasına rağmen, iki büyük engelin katılımı etkilediği iddia edilmektedir. Romanların hem maruz kaldıkları ayrımcılık ve hem de grup içi bölünmüşlük Roman gruplarının siyaseti etkileme güçlerini azaltmaktadır. Sonuç olarak Roman siyasi katılımı etkili ve aktif olmaktan çok kısıtlı ve sembolik kalmaktadır.


Anahtar kelimeler


Roma Groups, Political Participation, Edirne. (Siyasi Katılım, Roman, Edirne)

Tam metin:

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