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THE ROLE OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT (YABANCI DİL ÖĞRENİMİNDE VE BAŞARIDA HAFIZANIN ROLÜ)

Rahmouna ZIDANE
937 289

Öz


Foreign language learning is a complex process that involves cognitive, physiological, psychological and social mechanisms. It is based on the acquisition and the accumulation of knowledge throughout time. In fact, information processing is related to mental processes including memory whose main task is represented in the act of remembering information which is an essential element in successful foreign language learning. The present article attempts to explain the role of human memory in foreign language learning and achievement. It investigates the learning difficulties associated with memory to propose some strategies that can enhance memory capacity. The study consists of two main parts. The first one is theoretical represented in the description of the history of research within the field of foreign language learning and instruction with special reference to the theories related to memory. It provides an explanation of the memory system, its distinct types and its main models. Then, it tackles its position in foreign language learning within the different learning theories and language teaching methods. The second part is practical; it tries to elicit the relationship between human memory and foreign language learners’ performance through the study of the case of first year EFL university students using a test as a research instrument. Finally, the article ends with a set of suggestions formulated on the basis of the research findings.

Keywords: Foreign Language, Learning, Human Memory, Knowledge

YABANCI DİL ÖĞRENİMİNDE VE BAŞARIDA HAFIZANIN ROLÜ

Öz: Yabancı dil öğrenimi bilişsel, fizyolojik, psikolojik ve sosyal mekanizmalar içeren karmaşık bir süreçtir. Genellikle dil öğreniminde başarı, bilgi edinimi ve birikimine dayanmaktadır. Aslında, bilgi süreci zihinsel işlemlerle bağlantılıdır ve ana görevi bilgileri depolamak olan ve dil öğreniminde önemli bir yere sahip olan insan hafızası bu işlemlerden biridir. Bu makalede, yabancı dil öğreniminde ve başarıda hafızanın etkisinin ve yabancı dil öğrencilerinin bellek kapasitesi nedeniyle karşılaştığı zorlukların incelenmesi amaçlamaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında, hafıza kapasitesini geliştirmek için bazı stratejiler listelenmiştir. Bu çalışma, teorik ve pratik olarak iki bölüme ayrılmıştır. İlk kısımda, hafıza sistemi, farklı türleri ve ana modelleri tarif edilmiştir. Ayrıca, bellek özel referansı ile öğrenme kuramları ve öğretim yöntemlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Pratik kısımda bu inceleme vaka çalışması olarak üniversite yabancı dil öğrencileri üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Hafıza ve öğrencilerin performansı arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklamak için farklı görevler içeren yazılı test kullanılmıştır. Toplanan verileri analiz etmek için tanımlayıcı istatistiklerden yararlanılmıştır. Böylece, çalışmanın hipotezleri kanıtlar sağlanarak onaylanmıştır. Daha sonra, yapılan bir araştırmada bellek etkisi ve öğrencilerin performansı hakkında diğer araştırmacıların görüşlerine yer verilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ışığında öğrencilerin hafıza kapasitesini geliştirmek ve düzeylerini iyileştirmek amacıyla onlara faydalı olacak öneriler sunulmuştur. En sonunda, yabancı dil öğrenmede başarı ya da başarısızlığa neden olan faktörleri saptamak için daha fazla araştırma yapılması gerektiği sonucuna varılmıştır.

Anahtar Sözcükler: Yabancı Dil, Öğrenme, İnsan Hafızası, Bilgi

Anahtar kelimeler


Foreign Language, Learning, Human Memory, Knowledge

Tam metin:

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20304/husbd.84543

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